OPTIMAL VIEWING POSITION EFFECT OF CONNECTING AND UN-CONNECTING LETTERS WITHIN LETTER-STRING IN ARABIC
The Arab Center for Mind, Brain & Behavior (ACMBB)
The current study investigates the role of Arabic letter visibility as a possible cause of the Optimal Viewing Position-OVP effect. We used connecting and un-connecting Arabic letters of different shapes (basic, initial, medial, final) placed at the various possible positions within connecting letter string of لs (للللللللللل) (Experiment 1) and within un-connecting letter string of اs (ااااااااااا) (Experiment 2). In order to investigate whether performance on the visual identification task is modulated by letter type, we presented each of the connecting and un-connecting letter targets in each of the ten stimulus positions across the array so as to produce a mean RT (ms) for each of the letter types. Using the initial fixation paradigm enabled us to compare Reaction times with correctly identified letter targets appearing in the different possible positions within letter-string.
The findings of the present experiments demonstrated that visual letter recognition is influenced by: (i) the letters' type (connecting, un-connecting), as connecting letters are easier to recognize than un-connecting letters; and (ii) letters' shape (basic, initial, medial, final), as medial and final are harder to recognize than basic and initial letter shapes, (iii) letter string's type, as reading rates were longer for letter stimuli that have been embedded within a connecting letter string compared to an un-connecting letter string with inter-letter spacing, (iv) visual field, as reading rates were longer for letter stimuli that have been presented in LVF compared to RVF, (v) eccentricity, as letter reading rates were correlated with its eccentric placement across the letter string.
Keywords: Arabic, Crowding, Optimal viewing position, Visual recognition,
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