Hyperion University, Department of Psychology
Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and behaviour which cause serious problems with relationships and work (Grohol, 2015).The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, 2000) defines a personality disorder like “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that differs markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment”. Those who struggle with a personality disorder tend to be inflexible, rigid, unable to respond to the changes and demands of life and find it difficult to participate in social activities.
Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood and causes significant problems and limitations in relationships and social encounters.
DSM-IV-TR has organized clinical assessment into five axes, addressing the different aspects and impact of disorders and personality disorders were designated to Axis II. Later, the mental health specialists considered that that there is no fundamental difference between disorders described on DSM-IV’s Axis I and Axis II and DSM-5 has shifted to a single axis system, which combines the first three axes outlined in past editions of DSM into one axis with all mental and other medical diagnoses (www.dsm5.org). Personality disorders fall within 10 distinct types: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality, narcissistic personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (www.dsm5.org).
Keywords: personality disorder, axis, DSM
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